Tuesday, March 18, 2008

Black Days for the Dalai Lama

...courtesy of the Tibetan People’s Uprising Movement

Amidst the horrific violence of the last few days, somebody’s been working overtime to marginalize the Dalai Lama and undercut him as the leader of the worldwide Tibetan movement.

Not just the Chinese.

I’m talking to you, Tsewang Rigzin.

Tibetan unrest in China is not just a problem for the PRC. It’s a major problem for the Tibetan emigre movement, which is threatening to fissure because of conflicts between moderates and militants.

And if things end badly, the question will be, did the militants fatally miscalculate the cost of confrontation, not only to themselves but the Dalai Lama?

Finally, this side of the story is starting to trickle into the Western media.

From the UK’s Daily Telegraph :

"There is a growing frustration within the Tibetan community, especially in the young generation," Tsewang Rigzin said. "I certainly hope the Middle Way approach will be reviewed. As we can see from the protests here and all over the world, the Tibetan people remain committed to achieving independence."

The Middle Way is the Dalai Lama’s incremental approach of engagement with China, leading to autonomy, not independence.

As for Tsewang Rigzin, expressions of individual militancy are only part of the story.

Tsewang Rigzin is president of the Tibetan Youth Congress.

The Tibetan Youth Congress (TYC) describes itself as the largest Tibetan emigre NGO, with 30,000 members and over 80 chapters.

It’s pretty militant.

Its Secretary for Cultural Affairs, Lhakpa Tsering, set himself on fire in Mumbai in November 2006 to protest Hu Jintao’s visit—an interesting nugget that the Washington Post’s Rama Lakshmi failed to share with her readers when she quoted Tsering’s emotional account of a phone call from Lhasa during the current unrest.

Actually, he set his pants on fire, which makes it sound somehow different, eschewing the whole-body suicide approach for a badly burned leg. He’s got a picture of the event on his blog.

The TYC’s stated “sole objective” is to “restore Tibet's lost independence .”

More importantly—and for some reason inexplicably unaddressed in the Telegraph article or, as I can determine, any other Western coverage of the unrest—the Tibetan Youth Congress is a founding member of the Tibetan People’s Uprising Movement (TPUM), which has called for “direct action” inside and outside Tibet in the cause of Tibetan independence.

Tsewang Rigzin was elected president of the TYC in December 2007. TPUM was formed in January 2008.

Its manifesto is a piece of defiant oratory:

It is time for Tibetans to take control of our future through a unified and coordinated resistance movement. We must now proclaim to the Chinese and to the world that the desire for freedom still burns in the heart of every Tibetan, both inside Tibet and in exile. In particular, the time has come for Tibetans in exile to boldly demonstrate that even after 50 years, we long to return to our homeland. A return march from exile in India back home to Tibet is being organized and will revive the spirit of the 1959 Uprising.

The 2008 Olympics will mark the culmination of almost 50 years of Tibetan resistance in exile. We will use this historic moment to reinvigorate the Tibetan freedom movement and bring our exile struggle for freedom back to Tibet. Through tireless work and an unwavering commitment to truth and justice, we will bring about another uprising that will shake China’s control in Tibet and mark the beginning of the end of China’s occupation.[emph added]

As an entity, the TPUM has been MIA since the Tibet unrest erupted.

Perhaps its leaders have made the expedient calculation that, since that Tibet is in the grips of a real uprising, the best way to avoid alienating Western support with expressions of radical militancy--and deny the Chinese government a very real and effective propaganda target--is for the TPUM to fade away.

Thanks to the TPUM disappearing act, TPUM principals are available for quotes, but only as leaders of their constituent NGOs.

However, now that TPUM members are going on record with the Western media dissing the Dalai Lama, a critical examination of their role in the current unrest inside China, and, more importantly, the merits of the TPUM strategy should be forthcoming. Maybe.

Of course, if the whole thing turns into a bloody fiasco, the TPUM--or its real story--may never resurface.

Given its stated commitment to direct action—not only direct action in principle, but direct action to disrupt the Beijing Olympics, something that has to occur on a pretty tight timeline—one has to wonder if the TPUM was involved in orchestrating the March 10 protests in Lhasa that sparked the confrontation and demonstrations throughout the Tibetan ethnic areas of the People’s Republic of China.

The press has not explored the possible TPUM connection, even in light of the report of two European tourists concerning a large, organized demonstration in Lhasa’s main Bokhara Square on March 10--several hundred monks appeared at 6:00 pm to form a ring around the police in the sqaure-- that triggered a violent Chinese security reaction and subsequent rioting at the same time the TPUM was organizing a protest march to from Dharamsala to Indian border with Tibet.

It should be said that TPUM members haven’t taken responsibility for the protests and unrest inside China. Beyond its manifesto calling for an uprising, the TPUM's main public initiative has been an abortive attempt for a non-violent march from Dharamsala to the Indian border. And ample resentment exists throughout the Tibetan areas to make it plausible to conclude that many of the protests erupted spontaneoously.

AP reports that B. Tsering of the Tibetan Women's Association disavowed any guiding role for emigres in the unrest:

Despite China's charge that the Dalai Lama and his supporters planned the uprising, the protests in Tibet and cities around the world were spontaneous — organized by local Tibetan groups and their sympathizers, B. Tsering said.

"If this continues I'm afraid the Tibetan people might lose control. It could get difficult," she said. "Lots of demonstrations are decided on by the young people and we can't control them.

Nevertheless, she took the rather contradictory step of defending and explaining activities inside China that emigres are supposedly not involved with :

TIBETAN exiles in India have accused the Chinese Government of distorting the nature of the protests in Tibet.

The president of the Tibetan Women's Association, B. Tsering, said the Chinese Government had released misleading images to the world's media that portray the Tibetan protest as violent.

The Tibetan Women’s Association is a founding member of the TPUM, something the Sydney Morning Herald and the AP both neglected to report--or were not told.

I guess, as far as press availabilities are concerned, the TPUM is as of now the uprising that dares not speak its name.

More believably, in line with Western reports of violence, rioting, and looting in Lhasa, and in contrast to the possibly self-serving narrative of Tsering, the Dalai Lama stated in his press conference:

"Please help stop violence from Chinese side and also from Tibetan side."

Regardless of what the TPUM did before its fadeout, and even if the TPUM just a collection of big-talk and little-action emigres, rest assured that the Chinese media will be happy to connect the TPUM dots as they see fit...once they’ve dealt with their primary political foe, the Dalai Lama.

On March 17 I wrote:

Assuming that TPUM has thought this thing [trying to get an Olympic boycott] through, the conclusion would be that they are consciously trying to elicit Chinese over-reaction, exacerbate the crackdown, and alienate more and more Tibetans from the idea of accommodation with the PRC.

[This approach] would also involve abandoning the moral high ground that the Dalai Lama has assiduously cultivated for fifty years...

What’s happened since then?

The Chinese have seized on the riots to discredit the Dalai Lama.

By linking the Dalai Lama to the unrest—which he opposes (and the Chinese know he opposes)—the Chinese are forcing the Dalai Lama either to repudiate the Tibetan militants and split the emigre Tibetan movement, or endorse the insurrection and permit the Chinese to portray him as an impotent captive of extremist forces.

For those unfamiliar with the Chinese pattern of denunciation, polarization, division, and destruction this is a classic tactic--call it Police State 101--intended to isolate the target of a purge by forcing him to denounce his associates—or force the target to incriminate himself by not forswearing alliance with a vulnerable, isolated, and discredited element that the Chinese government is about to land on like a ton of bricks.

What does the Dalai Lama do? Support the militants? Or denounce them?

What he does is search—desperately--for the third or middle way out :

"I say to China and the Tibetans — don't commit violence," the Nobel Peace laureate told reporters. ...

He said that "if things become out of control," his "only option is to completely resign."
"If the Tibetans were to choose the path of violence, he would have to resign because he is completely committed to nonviolence," Tenzin Taklha said. "He would resign as the political leader and head of state, but not as the Dalai Lama. He will always be the Dalai Lama."

In case the point needs to be driven home with a 50-pound sledge, the Dalai Lama’s threat to resign is not meant to intimidate the Chinese. There’s nothing the PRC would like better than to see their Nobel Peace Prize-winner adversary sideline himself from Tibet's political struggle.

It’s a statement to Tibetan militants that the Dalai Lama refuses to be stampeded from his advocacy of non-violence and engagement with the Chinese government on an autonomy platform.

Interestingly and I might say somewhat pathetically, the Dalai Lama is still trying to define Tibetan dissent as a non-violent movement and create political space for himself by questioning whether the undeniable violence is being stirred up by outside agitators—the Chinese:

It's possible some Chinese agents are involved there," he said. "Sometimes totalitarian regimes are very clever, so it is important to investigate."

Given understandable Tibetan anger against the occupation being manifested in dozens if not hundreds of outbursts, the Chinese will have no shortage of atrocity tales and photographs to brandish without fomenting incidents or generating forgeries .

In fact, they’ve probably already got enough material.

From Xinhua :

Thirteen innocent civilians were burned or stabbed to death, [Qiangba Puncog, chairman of the Tibet autonomous regional government] said, adding that calm had returned to Lhasa.

On Friday, violence involving physical assault, destruction of property, looting and arson broke out in urban Lhasa. Rioters set fires at more than 300 locations, including 214 homes and shops, and smashed and burned 56 vehicles.

In one case, a civilian was doused with gasoline and burned to death by rioters.

Sixty-one members of the armed police were injured, including six critically. Rioters beat a police officer into a coma and cut a fist-size piece of flesh out of his buttock, he said.

Wonder if the 2008 Lhasa riots will follow the 18th century War of Jenkin’s Ear into body-part historiography as “The War of the Policeman’s Buttock Chunk”.

But to return to the TPUM and its previously announced strategy, I see it borrowing from the Chinese playbook by advocating polarizing actions that undercut the middle ground out from under people that might be interested in appeasing the PRC, or at least repudiate the moderates willing to put up with Beijing's prolonged and cynical effort to "negotiate" the emigre movement into exhausted impotence.

However, if they hope to exploit the unrest inside the PRC to advance an alternative to the Dalai Lama's peaceful engagement, the TPUM isn't dealing from a position of sufficient strength to benefit from polarizing the Tibetan community, or "energizing the base" as American politicians might say.

Instead, it is in danger of making the critical and perhaps fatal error of dividing its own forces instead of the enemy’s, thereby weakening its own already precarious position instead of strengthening it.

The most immediate result of Tibetan militancy will be to unite the Chinese and isolate the moderates on the Tibetan side, while undermining the political standing of Tibet’s most effective political figure, the Dalai Lama, as spokesman for a unified, internationally popular political and diplomatic movement.

That’s bad politics and dumb tactics...and it's exactly what the Chinese have been trying to accomplish for the last five decades.

The worst case is that the Tibetan unrest and toothless Western censure unite Chinese elite and Chinese public opinion in favor of another one of those major security actions against Tibet’s isolated people and fragile institutions that seem to happen every twenty years.

This one might end up destroying the Dalai Lama’s authority as a leader, encourage the Chinese to further interfere in Tibetan politics and culture by aggressively inserting itself into the search for the next reincarnation, split Tibetan Bhuddism between a PRC-sponsored Dalai Lama in Lhasa and an untested child in Dharamsala, redefine the emigres as a collection of secular, angry--and vulnerable--dissidents, and put the Tibetan regions securely under Beijing’s thumb for another generation.

That’s a potential win big enough to compensate for some embarrassment at the Olympics.

Don’t be surprised if the Chinese invoke the Global War on Terror, that magic elixir of oppressive state power, to justify going after TPUM, Tibetan monks, and any other source of actual or potential resistance.

Heck, it’s already happening, as the Tibetan Women’s Association’s B. Tsering realizes:

"One of the most disturbing realities is that China is now trying to give the picture that Tibetans have adopted terrorism to raise our issues," she said.

Ya think?

An eagerly draconian Chinese response may elicit ever more powerful resistance from the Tibetans, insurrection, and even independence.

But the alternative is that the Chinese successfully mobilize their power to quash political and religious opposition inside Tibet, resulting in the discrediting of the independence movement and the political destruction of the TPUM.

Especially if the West, already committed to supporting PRC sovereignty over Tibet, finds even less reason to support Tibetan dissidents if the Dalai Lama is out of the picture.

The persona of the benevolent and moderate Dalai Lama is critical to the fortunes of every Tibetan emigre group.

With Tibetan activists now looking more like Steven Seagals than Mahatma Gandhis and the Dalai Lama threatening to resign, how to keep the West's goodwill is probably the topic of some anxious discussion at TPUM headquarters.

I wonder if Nancy Pelosi and Richard Gere will be as eager to go to bat for Tsewang Rigzin as they now do for the Dalai Lama.

In my previous post, I wrote:

If world opinion starts to regard direct action in Tibet as a Buddhist intifada led by confrontational hotheads, with monasteries and nunneries filling the role of extremist madrassahs, then the international opinion that stands between China and the most brutal public security and occupation measures may crumble and leave the Tibetan independence movement worse off than it is now.

Well, straight from China Matters’ lips to Barbara Demick’s ear.

In the print edition of the March 18 LA Times, “Years of Grievance Erupt into Outrage”, Demick writes:

The...Dalai Lama is revered as a god-kind by Tibetans, and insults toward him elicit a visceral response—not unlike the violent response of some Muslims to perceived slights against Muhammad.

Heckuva job, Tsewang.

As a footnote to this post, I’d like to thank Helena Cobham for taking on the job of analogy cop by gently but firmly by pointing out that my equation of the Intifada in Gaza and unrest in Tibet in my previous post is only useful as a discussion of tactics. The overall situations, legally, demographically, and in terms of acknowledged international standing differ markedly in the two instances.

Somewhat more bombastically, Bernard at Moon Over Alabama questioned some of my assertions and observations. I think he’s off base in his criticisms, but he did perform the valuable service of documenting the degree to which the NGOs that make up the TPUM have been playing footsie with the neocons in the US government and taking democracy promotion money.

Now that the protective aura of unity and moderation with which the Dalai Lama was able to envelop the Tibetan emigres for so many years is being slowly stripped away, a more critical and investigatory approach toward the Tibetan independence movement may be forthcoming in the international media.


kaiserkuo said...

You've been writing some of the most balanced, thought-provoking, and insightful posts about the situation I've read. Please keep it up.

Paul said...

Fantastic stuff. It's great to see the Tibet issue getting such thoughtful coverage. I've been drowning in the misinformation from both Western and Chinese media. There is a bigger story in the midst of all this and the people on the ground, both Tibetan and Han Chinese, are suffering.

Bchung said...

Man, you are great and i totally mean it. This is the most unbiased view i have seen so far, actually i don't think there is any bias at all. The propoganda machines, from the western , chinese and tibetian are working hard around the clock and publishing a bunch of one sided BS. Its glad to see someone like you still exists in the world when no press is worth trusting.

Unknown said...

Probably one of the most insightful postings on the present troubles which I've read so far. Almost too well written as it leaves me with few points on which I can pull you up :-)

David said...

I don't agree...
Tibet independence movement has effectively evolved from anti government motive to racial intolerance.

The ball has rolled on from simply grievance against social injustice and Dali has, intentionally or otherwise, fueled this change.

The Tibet for Tibetans movement is racist at its core and seeks to destroy the ethnic minorities of Tibet.

Hui(Muslims) are persecuted along with the Han Chinese. Minorities are driven out under calls for a Greater Tibet which includes major parts of near by provinces where Tibetans are the minority and violence have already broken out.

I don't see the pacifist of a monk you are pointing out as Dali lama.
Instead I see someone who orchestrated a movement but seeing the backlash, tries to distance himself personally from the damage.

What's ironic is that no matter if he resigns, he will always be the spiritual leader of Tibet and have the authority to call upon a fellowship if need be. His influence even without office will remain unchanged much like Ayatollah Khomein.

Diana said...

As a fellow blogger, I really appreciate the information about the Tibetan Independence Movement. Let me point out, however, that if the Chinese government weren't so repressive, even of their own ethnic groups, the current situation might not be so bad.

I firmly believe that the US must reduce its dependence upon cheap Chinese goods...the tainted toys, food and pharmaceuticals don't do anything to improve China's image, either. Let's make China matter LESS, until they clean up their act.

Unknown said...

Interesting articles.

I think you would be a great addition to our site, www.polzoo.com. We also have some great articles about Tibet:


We are a user generated political editorial and social network.

master_of_americans said...


What is the evidence that the Dalai Lama somehow orchestrated the recent violence in Tibet?

Do you think that Hui and Han are perceived by Tibetans as being particularly different? They are both Chinese-speaking groups who arrived recently and are assumed to be supporters of the army which maintains the PRC's control over Tibet. Your statement implies that the rioters were going after anyone who looked different from them, but I'm not sure that's the case.

Also, it is a popular misconception that Tibetans are a minority in large parts of the Zangqu. According to government statistics, Tibetans are a majority of at least 60% in the following autonomous areas outside of the TAR: Gardze, Yushu, Hainan, Huangnan, and Golog; plus Tibetans and Qiangs together are 71% in Ngawa. I think it is safe to assume that Tibetans form a majority in sections of several other areas, such as in the Xiahe region. A lot of land area is inhabited primarily by Tibetans.

David said...


Where did I say Dalai orchestrated the recent violence?

I said he orchestrated the Tibet for Tibetans movement which Dalai actively promotes spurs racial hatred and segregation of minorities. This nationalism sentiment will only encourage radicalism and not mutual understanding. understand that these minorities in Tibet are there to stay. Tibetans have not right in refusing both legally or morally.

Employing violence and scare tactics to root them out is quite against what Dalai stands for.

If this is how Tibetans are treating minorities I don't see much hope in calling for equality and human rights.

Hui has been in Tibet since the 17th century and not recent arrivals as you seems to suggest.

Another factor that anyone conveniently forgets is the fact that religious conflict has spilled out in Tibet area for centuries and Tibetans aren't known for non violence in the treatment of others.

Bing said...

The Dalai D'sala connection is real.

check out this video:


at the 1:58 mark, you can hear the rioter's heavy Indian accent (a.k.a Apu from The Simpsons).

Paul D said...

Thanks for an excellent analysis of the social and political aspects of the violence.

I have written a post about likely economic scenarios following the violence at:

Dan said...

The Tibetan movement is a national liberation movement of an oppressed minority. The TYC congress has always been an dissident group, disagreeing with the TGIE on a number of issues, and hardly represents Tibetan refugees as a whole, let alone Tibetans inside the TAR. I haven't detected much if any "balance" here, so I'm off to another blog. Do you think that the Xinhua and the foreign press have the same weight, and that one has to weigh one side in each hand to find this so-called "balance"? Interesting idea, but I don't get it. Goes nowhere toward any kind of truth.

VietnamVet said...

One of the offshoots of Western Education and emphasize on individualism is the denial of population dynamics and clash of cultures. The expansionist conquest of North America is covered up and similar dynamics by other races overlooked.

Decades ago in another war from the back of an Army truck I got glimpses of a massive Khmer Buddhist temple falling into ruin. Except, in the central coast of Vietnam there are no Khmer. The Vietnamese had forced them out centuries earlier. For failing to understand the strength and unity of their culture, the American occupation was futile and inevitably a total failure.

The Han Chinese will continue to immigrate to the Tibetan Plateau until it is in integral part of greater China. The only counter measures minority races have to being placed into reservations are AK-47s and IEDs. The Tibetan failing may be that it is so isolated that they do not have secure adjacent safe zones to stock and replenished their war supplies.

pery said...

It's funny that all these people are cheering on the Free Tibet movement as a "national liberation struggle," yet they ignore the reality that this movement functions as a cat's paw of the American Empire and its imperialist ... sorry, Freedom-loving Democratic allies.

This is same America and its democratic allies like Britain, Australia, Canada etc. are occupying and colonizing Iraq, Afghanistan, and other nations under the guise of their bogus War on Terrorism.

It should also be remembered these same Western "democracies" led by the USA are guilty of real genocide in Iraq, where over a million Iraqis have been murdered since 2003 as a result of their war.

And make no mistake, this so-called Free Tibet "intifida" is being stoked and sponsored by the American axis for the most cynical geopolitical purposes. The USA and Britain in particular have a continuing history of covert operations and imperial-sponsored insurgencies in Tibet dating back decades for the USA and centuries for the UK. Information about this point can be found in the excellent article "Risky Geopolitical Game: Washington Plays ‘Tibet Roulette’ with China" below.

It's funny how this unbiased (cough) blog buries this little issue. You'd think that this information would be important to know.

Moreover, the radicalization of the Tibetan émigré groups mentioned above is precisely what the USA and its allies want. For all its propaganda about promoting dialogue between the Dalai Lama and China, America would like to use the Tibetan insurgency as a tool to either destabilize China, or in the long run balkanize it.

The balkanization of a targeted nation through radicalizing different ethnic groups is a standard tactic from the days of the British Empire (and its Great Game) to the Anglo-American empire today. Just check out what the USA and its allies are doing to Iraq now or Yugoslavia in the 1990s.

Divide and Conquer in the name of Freedom and Independence is the Anglo-American way.

Moreover, the primary reason why Americans and their allies are so quick to hypocritically embrace the "Free Tibet" movement is that they see Tibet as a way to control China, an emerging economic competitor of the USA and self-styled "Free World."

Too bad Freedom has got NOTHING to do with it.

As always, the (Anglo)American Empire disguises its geopolitical machinations behind the mask of Liberty, Democracy, and Human Rights.

Risky Geopolitical Game: Washington Plays ‘Tibet Roulette’ with China

"Trouble in Tibet"

"Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth"

Tibet and the March 10 commemoration of the CIA's 1959 'uprising'

pery said...

Also, if they were sincere in national liberation, America and other Western nations might want to look in the mirror first.

What is the USA, for example, but a British/European Colonizer nation based upon the theft of Native Indian, Mexican, and Hawaiian land? You could say that White Europeans illegally occupy and rule over the entire North American continent. Indeed, the USA is no different from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, or Israel as they are all Western settler states.

Ain't it interesting that the primary sponsors (or is that controllers?) of the Free Tibet movement are these very same Western colonizer nations led by the USA? Hypocrisy doesn't even begin to describe what these nations stand for.

In fact, there are numerous independence movements in America that the Capitalist Free Press would rather not admit even exist.

It's long overdue to provide some material and political support to the Free Aztlan or Lakota movements in the good old USA.

And the Quebec, Australian Aborigine, or Maori independence struggles sure could use some support from Hollywood elites like Richard Gere or even CIA sponsorship.

In the not-so-United Kingdom, there are Scotland and Northern Ireland freedom organizations that should receive more solidarity from the liberty-loving people of the Free World.

But if this same type of "Tibetan intifida" were happening in British-occupied Northern Ireland, the Brits--and no doubt most people here and in the Western media--would be describing it in very different political terms and attitudes.

Hell, it's about time for some armed guerrilla movements in North America to start capping some White Settler ass, don't ya think?

There's a whole lot of payback--past and present--waiting to be delivered to these Gringos and their Whitebread world. But that would be terrorism, right? ;)

In addition, in India, which hosts the Dalai Lama's organizations, there are also major independence movements like in Kashmir, Khalistan, Assam, Nagaland, and Bodoland, which the Indian government has tried to repress militarily and otherwise for decades.

But from the Western and Indian perspective, they describe these movements as "terrorists." After all, India is a close ally of the West--just like Israel. So they get a free pass of course.

Makes you wonder, which people are really being brainwashed?

After all, it's the Western media that has propagandized the Big Lie about Iraqi "Weapons of Mass Destruction" for years--not to mention the USA's Terror War against "former" CIA asset Usama Bin Laden.

For all those great champions of National Liberation out there, here are some movements/issues that you can also support:

"Freedom! Lakota Sioux Indians Declare Sovereign Nation Status"

Republic of Lakotah


HAWAI `I: Independent & Sovereign

Independent Vermont

Khalistan Independence organizations

"The Rape of Kashmir: Parallels with the Israeli Occupation of Palestine"

The disaster of Canadian colonialism

The Crisis in Kashechewan

Australia's Hidden Empire

Maori Independence

cardano said...

pery some serious viewing and reading for you also, hope you have the nous to at least give it the attention it deserves, for you’re such an astute observer.





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Tibetans slaughtered during Uprising

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By the late 1950s it was clear to Tibetans that China had no intention of honouring a pledge made in 1951 to respect Tibetan autonomy. Tibetan resentment of China’s occupation simmered and it was clear that a revolt against Chinese rule was brewing.

On 10 March 1959, fearful that the Chinese intended to kidnap the Dalai Lama and take him to Beijing, 300,000 Tibetans surrounded the Norbulinka palace. Over the next days the Uprising grew. On 12 March 5,000 Tibetan women marched through the streets of Lhasa holding aloft banners demanding Tibetan independence. Tension escalated further as Tibetans erected barricades in Lhasa’s streets whilst Chinese forces mounted machine-guns on Lhasa rooftops. It is estimated that between 30,000 and 50,000 well-armed Chinese troops were in Lhasa while heavy Chinese artillery had been placed strategically outside the city.

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Scenes from the 1959 uprising at the Potala Palace, Lhasa, and Norbulinka

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On 19 March the Chinese started to shell Norbulingka, prompting the full force of the Uprising. On 21 March 800 shells rained down on the palace, slaughtering thousands of Tibetan men, women and children. Even the main monasteries - Drepung, Ganden and Sera - were shelled, destroying precious scriptures and other monastic treasures. Over a few days more than 86,000 Tibetans in central Tibet were killed by Chinese armed forces.

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Tibetans are rounded up during the uprising of 1959

The Dalai Lama had fled Lhasa on 17 March disguised as a soldier. Writing decades later in his autobiography 'My Land and My People', he wrote: “The first thought in the mind of every official within the Palace….was that my life must be saved and I must leave the Palace and the city at once……Everything was uncertain, except the compelling anxiety of all my people to get me away before the orgy of Chinese destruction and massacre began”. After two weeks of perilous flight the Dalai Lama crossed the Indian border on 31 March. The Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, announced on 3 April that the Government of India had granted the Dalai Lama asylum.

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Tibetans are captured in Lhasa as the Dalai Lama is forced into exile
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